Now that you have learned the cases, the present subjunctive tense of the verb ყოფნა – to be and the main verb using the ყოფნა conjugation as well as მისვლა – to go and all the prefixes, you are ready to advance further in Georgian grammar.

Learn the Georgian language

Noun Suffixes

As you know, Georgian nouns have cases. However, along with the cases, you also have suffixes which govern certain cases. The suffixes which indicate location have already been covered, but we’ll cover them more in depth here.

ში – in/into This suffix primarily means in or into. It governs the dative case, so if an adjective has to be in agreement for the dative case, this suffix indicates the locative or dative case.

Examples:
მე რუსულ სახლში შევდივარ. I am going into (entering) the Russian House.
ყველა ავეჯი რუსულ სახლში ლამაზია. All the furniture in the Russian House is beautiful.

Notice how the adjective takes on the dative agreement in both sentences. One shows the noun რუსული სახლი – the Russian House in the direct object where the subject is entering/going into, and the second indicates a location or preposition …in the Russian House.

ზე – on/onto, about This suffix is similar to the above mentioned suffix. It also governs the dative or locative cases. If it indicates location, then it is the locative case, if it is motion to an object or in a context of a conversation about an object, then it is in the dative case.

Examples:
არწივმა ქლდაზე ჩამოფრინდა. The eagle landed on the cliff.
მგელი თავის საჩმელს ქლდაზე ბატონობს. The wolf is defending its food on the cliff.
მე დაგილაპარაკებ ცეცხლზე. I will talk to you about the fire.

The suffix ზე can also be used similar to the term like, as in someone looks like someone else or something looks like something else.

შოთა თავის მამაზე გავს. Shota looks like his father.

დან is a suffix of a noun and governs the genitive case. This suffix denotes coming from somewhere or someone. This suffix is used when someone comes from a place, typically home, school, a city or town, country, etc.

Examples:
ნათიამ სოფლიდან მოვიდა. Natia came from the village.
ჩემი სტუმარი არის რუსეთიდან. My guest is from Russia.
ეს წიგნი სკოლიდან მოვითანე. I brought the book from school.

გან is also a suffix which governs the genitive case. Typically there is a difference between დან andგან. Where the suffix დან (from) was covered above, the suffix გან means out of. Basically, this suffix is used when you have taken away something or stolen something from someone or something.

Examples:
ქურდები ფულს ბანკიგან ქურდობენ. The thieves steal the money from the bank.
მე გათეხილი შუშას ბავშვიგან წამოვიღე. I took the piece of broken glass from the child.

Note, that in conversational Georgian the two prefixes can be used interchangeably. The suffix დან is more often used than გან in many parts of Georgia.

თან is a suffix which can mean with and can also mean to come to someone or to be with someone. Typically, this suffix governs the dative case. It is often used with personal pronouns and with people. It can also be used to describe being with animals, such as pets or domesticated animals in a yard.

Examples:
წამო ჩემთან. Come with me.
ჩამოდი ჩვენთან სტუმრად. Come visit us.
ზურა ნინოსთან წადის. Zura is going out with Nino.
ნათელა ქათმებთან არის. Natela is with the chickens.

Note that some of the examples show tenses we haven’t covered yet. However, I hope you get the picture and see how the suffixes are used.

Conjugation of verbs ending in ება

In Georgian, there are three sets of words which are regular. The first of this group is the largest, and it’s very easy to conjugate in the present subjunctive. The other two groups which will be covered later include verbs ending in ობა and ვა. The conjugation of the future subjunctive is conjugated in the table below.

The verb გაკეთება – to do, to make

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
აკეთებ
ჩვენ
ვაკეთებთ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
კეთებ
თქვენ
კეთებთ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
კეთებთ
თქვენ
ებთკეთებთ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
კეთებს
იგინი, ისინი
კეთებენ

Note that this verb is the main verb for to do something. Often used in Georgian as we would use in the context of doing something, making something.

Examples:
რას აკეთებ? What are you doing? What are you making?
ვანო შინაურ დავალებას აკეთებს. Johny is doing his homework.
ბესო სახლს აშენებს. Beso is building a house.
მე ნიკას ჩემი მანქანას ვაჩვენებ. I am showing Nick my car.

You can see that in the example I’ve added other verbs which have the same conjugation, in order to illustrate how they all conjugate the same way.

Conjugation of verbs ending in ობა

Verbs ending in ობა are conjugated much like the verbs ending in ება with the similar endings and prefixes. The only thing that changes is the vowel of the ending.

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
ვათბობ
ჩვენ
ვათბობთ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
თბობ
თქვენ
თბობთ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
თბობთ
თქვენ
თბობთ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
თბობს
იგინი, ისინი
თბობენ

Note, the verb conjugated above means to warm. In the examples below, you will see different verbs which are conjugated the same way.

ეს ამერიკელი ქართულად კარგად ლაპარაკობს. This American speaks Georgian very well.*
ქურდები ყოველთის ქურდობენ. The thieves are always stealing.
რას ამბობ? What are you saying?
ჩემი ძაღლი ბატონობს. My dog is ruling his territory.

*The verb ლაპარაკი (to speak) is a medial verb which has an irregular ending. In the present subjunctive, it is conjugated like any other verb ending in ობა.

Conjugation of verbs ending in ვა.

The third group of verbs which have some regularity are verbs which end in ვა. These verbs can be a bit tricky at first, but once you get the hang of it, they’re actually quite simple. They are a bit different from the two verbs conjugated above. The ending of verbs ending in ვა in the infinitive will reverse itself and become ავ. Below is the conjugation of the verb კლვაto kill.

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
კლავ
ჩვენ
კლავთ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
კლავ
თქვენ
კლავთ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
კლავთ
თქვენ
კლავთ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
კლავს
იგინი, ისინი
კლავენ

With this group of verbs, the ending inverts itself when it is conjugated in the present and future tenses along with the conditional tenses.

Examples:
მოწევა კლავს! Smoking kills! (a warning which frequently appears on cigarette ads and packs in Georgia)
მიშა კარგად ცურავს. Misha swims well.
დიდ ბრიტანეთის დედოფალი მეფობს, მაგრამ არ მარავს. The Queen of England sits on the throne, but she doesn’t rule.
როგორც პოლიციელი, მე საზოგადოებას დავცავ. As a police officer, I protect society.

Verbal Prefixes and Personal Prefixes

Georgian verbs can be confusing because many verbs can have a series of different prefixes – and when you change the prefix, you can change the entire meaning of the verb. In the simple present subjunctive, prefixes are rarely used. However, they are used in the future subjunctive as well as in the conditional and aorist tenses.

Personal prefixes are added to the verbs in the future and aorist tenses in order to indicate both direct object or indirect object of the personal pronoun which is the subject of the sentence. This simplifies the sentence structure and makes it less wordy. We will start with these first, then the verbal prefixes before the future subjunctive.

Personal Prefixes

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
მ –
ჩვენ
გვ -…- თ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
გ –
თქვენ
გ -…- თ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
გ -…- თ
თქვენ
გ -…- თ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
ჰ -, უ –
იგინი, ისინი
ჰ -, უ -…- ენ

As you notice in the table above, some of the prefixes govern a suffix. This suffix is the ending in the plural conjugation. Remember that თქვენ can be either singular formal for the second person or both informal and formal in the plural. When თქვენ is used in the singular formal or in the formal and informal plural, it always takes the verb in the second person plural conjugation. The only difference is with the ყოფნა verbs which can mean to be or the motion verbs where the formal singular would be ბრძანდებით.

Verbal prefixes can be very confusing. However, if you think back of when we studied the motion verbs ending in სვლა, you can get a slight idea – although, depending on the verb, the prefix can have a different meaning. When a verb appears in the infinitive form in the dictionary, it will have the prefix with it which is commonly used in the future, conditional, and aorist tenses. With that said, however, the prefixes can change the meaning of the verb, like the motion verbs. The motion verbs are among the few verbs which use the prefixes in the present tense.

The Motion Verbs Future Tense

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
მივალ
ჩვენ
მივალთ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
მიხვალ
თქვენ
მიხვალთ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
მიხვალთ
თქვენ
მიხვალთ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
მივა
იგინი, ისინი
მივლენ

Note this is the conjugation for მისვლა, to go. You can change the prefixes to change the meaning of the verb.

Examples:
როდის ჩამოხვალ? When are you coming?
როცა სამგორში მიხვალ, სუნელები მომითანე. When you go to Samgori, bring me some spices.
როდის ფული მოვა? When will the money come? (Note, in Georgian ფული, money, is always in the singular)
როცა წახვალ, იხიდი პურს და კადას. When you go out, buy me some bread and kada.*

*Kada is a traditional Georgian sweet bread from the Mtianeti region of Georgia. The towns of Ananuri and Pasanauri are very well known for their kada. Though kada is typically sweet, a variation is also baked with pepper.

In the examples above, you can see how the verbal prefixes and the personal prefixes work. In the tables below, you will see how to conjugate the verb წერა or to write in both the present and future tenses.

The Present Subjunctive and Future Subjunctive of წერა – to write

The Present Subjunctive

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
წერ
ჩვენ
წერ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
წერ
თქვენ
წერ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
წერ
თქვენ
წერ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
წერ
იგინი, ისინი
წერენ

The Future Subjunctive

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
დავწერ
ჩვენ
დავწერ
2nd person (informal)
შენ
დაწერ
თქვენ
დაწერ
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
დაწერ
თქვენ
დაწერ
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
დაწერ
იგინი, ისინი
დაწერენ

Here you can see how the verbal prefixes can change the meaning of a verb. We write for many things – our signatures, papers – and sometimes, the verb წერა can also mean to record a song,to write something on a computer disk or to write something down. In this case, if the prefix changes, then it will be used in both the present and future subjunctive. All those different prefixes are used with the verb წერა. Note that the prefix და is used as the basic future and past tense of წერა. Other verbs will have different prefixes for the future and aorist tenses.

  • მო – When added to წერა, the meaning changes to sign. მოწერა
  • ჩა – When added to წერა, the meaning changes to write down. ჩაწერა
Examples:
მე ხათუნას ოტკრიტკას დავწერ. I will write Khatuna a postcard.
შენი სახელს აქ მოწერ თუ კრედიტებს წამოიღებ. You will sign here if you want to get the loan.
ახლა ჩემი კომპიუტერი ვინჩესტერზე ფილმს ჩაწერს. Now, my computer is recording the movie onto the hard-drive.

First person and personal prefixes always appear between the verbal prefix and the root of the verb. After the first person prefix or the personal prefixes, you can add before the root of წერა to signify and emphasize signing a document. Here are some examples:

როცა საბუთებს ხელ მოვწერ, მაშინ სახლი იქნება ჩემი. When I sign the document, then the house will be mine.
როცა ჩიკაგოში ჩამოვალ, მე ოტკრიტკას დაწერ. When I arrive in Chicago, I will write you a postcard.
როცა ნანა თბილიში ჩამოვა, დაგვწერს. When Nana arrives in Tbilisi, she will write us.

In the above examples, you can see how the personal prefixes indicate the indirect and direct object of the first and second person in a sentence.

The Future Subjunctive of ყოფნა – to be

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
ვიქნებ
ჩვენ
ვიქნებით
2nd person (informal)
შენ
ქნებ
თქვენ
ქნებით
2nd person (formal)
თქვენ
ქნებით
თქვენ
ქნებით
3rd person
ეგ, ეს
ქნებ
იგინი, ისინი
ქნებენ

Note that the verb ყოფნა or to be does not have any prefixes like other verbs do. In the chart above, these conjugations translate into English as will, such as I will, you will, he will, etc. Note that in Georgian, the future of to be does not govern the future tense of verbs. That’s what the verbal prefixes do. Instead, it is more like will be.

Examples:
ხვაკე ვანო თბილისში იქნება. Tomorrow, Johny will be in Tbilisi.
ხუთშაბათს, შენ ჩემთან სუფრაზე იქნები. You will be with me at the supra on Thursday.
კვირას სად იქნები? Where will you be on Sunday?
თამუნა და მაკა როდის ბათუმში იქნებენ? When will Tamuna and Maka be in Batumi?

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns are the possessive articles of the personal pronouns, which in English would be my, mine, your, yours, his, hers, etc. See the table below to see the possessive articles in Georgian.

Singular
Plural
My, Mine
ჩემი
Our, Ours
ჩვემი
Your, Yours (informal)
შენი
Your, Yours (pl, informal)
თქვენი
Your, Yours (formal)
თქვენი
Your, Yours (pl, formal)
თქვენი
His, Hers, Its
მაგი
Their, Theirs
მათი

In Georgian, there is no difference in my or mine, your or yours, her or hers, etc. See the examples below.

შენი კედები მიმზიდველია. Your sneakers are cute.
ეს შენი მანქანაა? Is this your car?
აი, ეგ არის ჩემი სახლი. There is my house.
სად თამუნა და მაკა სკოლაში დადიან? Where do Tamuna and Maka go to school?
აი, ეს შენობა, ეგ არის მათი სკოლა. See, that building there, that’s their school.
ზურა მთვრალად მანქანას აიარა, იმიტომ პოლიციამ მაგის ტარების უფლება წამოიღეს. Zura was driving drunk, thus the police took away his driver’s license.

The Future Subjunctive of კლვა – to kill

Singular
Plural
1st person
მე
მოვკლავ
ჩვენ