Danish Alphabet & Pronunciation

>>>Danish Alphabet & Pronunciation
Danish Alphabet & Pronunciation2019-01-18T08:02:01+02:00

Danish is the official language of Denmark, and it’s also a language spoken by smaller communities in countries mainly in Germany and Greenland. It is one of the North Germanic languages, also called Scandinavian languages, spoken in the north of Europe, and, like the others, it uses the Latin alphabet. This makes Danish an easy language to read, things get interesting when we try to actually pronounce those words.

This lesson is part of the chapter “Learning Danish“.

Danish Alphabet and Pronunciation

With a quite astonishing number of up to 30 vowel sounds and variations on consonant pronunciation as well, Danish can be quite a challenging language to learn. But that also makes it an adventure – this is the language to learn if you are curious about learning new sounds or if you want to study phonology.

The Danish Alphabet

Letter (lower case)Letter (upper case)Name pronunciationEnglish transcription (lower case)English transcription (upper case)Example in Danish
aAaaAsamme (same)
bBbbBbede (ask)
cCccCcykel (cycle)
dDddDdag (day)
eEeeeEse (see)
fFffFfin (fine)
gGgeegGgå (go)
hHhohHhus (house)
iIeeiIdit (your)
jJjodjJjord (earth)
kKkokKkomme (come)
lLelllLle (laugh)
mMemmmMmad (food)
nNennnNnavn (name)
oOoooOko (cow)
pPppPpå (on)
qQkooqQquiz (quiz)
rRrrRrød (red)
sSssSvise (show)
tTttTtage (take)
uUoouUmus (mouse)
vVvvVverden (world)
wWdouble vwWwatt (watt)
xXexxXxylofon (xylophone)
yY/yː/ (see pronunciation)yYny (new)
zZzedzZzebra (zebra)

Special Characters

Letter (lower case)Letter (upper case)Name pronunciationEnglish transcription (lower case)English transcription (upper case)Example in Danish
æÆeh  knæ (knee)
øØlike the y  øl (beer)
åÅoh  hånd (hand)

The sounds of Danish

The vowel system of the Danish language has been a challenge to study for many linguists, there are several studies and approaches and yet these sources do not fully agree with one another on which are the exact sounds and how to use the IPA symbols. All in all, there are up to 30 vowel sounds, a bit less for some authors, but it’s still important to note that there are not many languages with millions of speakers that have this many vowels. For Hans Basbøll, one of the linguists that has studied this system most extensively, Danish has 16 full different vowels that can change while speaking. Some consonants can make a vowel sound, like the r, which changes how the vowels that follow or precede it sound as well, let’s see how it works according to Basbøll.


LetterPronunciation (English example)Phonetic notation
abad[a], [aː], [ɑ], [ɑː], [æ], [æː]
bbedvoiceless [b̥]; sometimes [b]
ccat[s] before e, i, y, æ and ø; otherwise [k]
ddogvoiceless [d̥]; [ð] at the end of the syllable, this is hard to pronounce for English speakers, it’s like a d close to an l, requieres practice to get right. Try to do an l sound with the tip of the tongue touching the lower teeth.
edress[e], [eː], [ɛ], [ɛː], [ə], [i]
ggovoiceless [ɡ̊]; it becomes [ɪ̯] after vowels like e, o and u (front vowels) and [ʊ̯] after vowels like a or o (back vowels).
hhouse[h], not pronounced before v or j
ibee[i], [iː], [e]
jyes[j]; [ɕ] after s or t
nname[ŋ] before g or k; otherwise [n]
oboss[o], [oː]
pputaspirated [pʰ]; voiceless [b̥] at the end of the syllable
rNo equivalent in English, the sound is made with the back of the tongue with a little friction.guttural [ʁ]; pronounced like a [ɐ̯] vowel at the end of the syllable
ttakeaspirated [tˢ]; voiceless [d̥] at the end of the syllable
uyou[u], [uː], [o]
vvery[ʋ]; pronounced like a [ʊ̯] vowel at the end of the syllable
xexact[s] at the beginning, otherwise [ks]
yNo equivalent in English; this sound is made by pursing the lips and pronouncing an o[y], [yː]

Special Characters

LetterPronunciation (English example)Phonetic notation
æair[æ], [æː], [ɛ], [ɛː]
øNo equivalent in English; this sound is made by pursing the lips and pronouncing an e, has a bit of an o sound[ø], [øː], [œ], [œː]
åoffer[ɔ], [ɔː]

The “r-colouring”

R-colouring brings vowels closer to the sound which resembles the vowel /ɑ/, the r can be absorbed by a vowel as well. These are the main changes:

Before rAfter rBefore and after r
[œː] > [ɶː][e] > [ɛ][a] > [ɑ]
[ɔ] > [ɒ][ø] > [œ][ɛ] > [æ]
[ɛː] > [æː][u] > [o][œ] > [ɶ]
[ʌ] > [ɒ] [ə] > [ɐ]

The stød

The stød is part of standard Danish even though it’s not used in some dialects. It’s usually translated as “glottal stop” because that’s one of its realizations, the other one is a creaky voice sound. To make this sound, you have to start pronouncing the word and then suddenly closing the vocal cords or just narrowing them, this results in a very brief pause. After that, the air is allowed to go through again creating the sound we are looking for.

Vowel combinations

airlike the English i
aulike ow
eulike eh-oo, but a bit closed
iulike ew
ou, åulike the o in offer
yulike the u in huge
æulike eh-oo
øilike eh-oo but with the lips rounded

Consonant combinations

Consonants can change their pronunciation depending on the word, sometimes they morph into vowels and they can even be omitted. For example, p could sound exactly like b, t like d and k like g. The way to go around this difficulty, just like with the vowels, is practicing a lot and listening to as much Danish as possible.

chsounds like sh
spsounds like sb
stsounds like sd
sksounds like sg
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